Co-authored by Daniel R. Coquillette ’66. Belknap Press: An Imprint of Harvard University Press, May 2020. By the late nineteenth century, Harvard Law School had transformed legal education and become the preeminent professional school in the nation. But in the early 1900s, HLS came to the brink of financial failure and lagged its peers in scholarly innovation. It also honed an aggressive intellectual culture famously described by Learned Hand: “In the universe of truth, they lived by the sword. They asked no quarter of absolutes, and they gave none.” The authors chronicle the school’s near collapse and dramatic resurgence across the twentieth century.