By Annette K. Joseph-Gabriel ’09. University of Illinois Press, January 2020. Black women living in the French empire played a key role in the decolonial movements of the mid-twentieth century. As thinkers and activists, these women lived lives of commitment and risk that landed them in war zones and concentration camps and saw them declared enemies of the state. Joseph-Gabriel mines published writings and untapped archives to reveal the anticolonialist endeavors of seven women.